Spanish Colonial Revival

3 Aug

Spanish Colonial Revival:

Origination on the west coast of the United States in late 19th century

counterpart to English Colonial Revival

range of Spanish and Mediterranean styles, forms, and details

Concepts:

Proclaims Hispanic background or place identity

architecture, interior, furnishing of exotic and romantic Spain

shares the same motivation as Arts and Crafts and Colonial Revival movements

Motifs:

ogee arches, interlaced arabesques, geometric shapes, heraldic symbols, pediments, zapatas, foliage

Architecture:

Covers several architectural styles derived from Spanish sources (Mission or Mission Revival, Spanish Colonial or Mediterranean Revival, Monterey Style, Pueblo Revival)

lavish ornament from Spanish, Moorish, and other Mediterranean sources

popular for residences

Materials- Walls are smooth or rough stucco, stone, brick, adobe, or concrete

Interiors:

May have rustic character

common features in all Spanish Colonial Revival styles are tile or wood floors, plastered white or off-white walls, add interest, arched openings, coffered or dark wooded-beamed ceilings

Furniture:

dark woods, carving, inlay, wrought iron details, applied ceramic tiles in bright colors

Spanish and Moorish motifs

rustic character

Materials- walnut, yellow pine, oak, and chestnut, usually in dark stain

luxury pieces may be of ebony or mahogany

Colonial Revival

3 Aug

Colonial Revival:

Originating in the United States in the 2nd half of 19th century

strives to emulate the architecture, interiors, furniture, and decorative arts of English and Dutch settlements in North America

style adapts elements from America’s colonial past to contemporary lifestyles

Concepts:

Colonial Revival symbolizing Americans heritage through nationalism within context of tradition and middle-class values

simpler and stable

finer in character and taste

Motifs:

simplified with less detail

column, pilasters, pediments, engaged columns, lintels, stringcourses, urns, shells

Architecture:

High-style houses imitate their Georgian and Federal predecessors( more eclectic and sometimes larger in scale)

Queen Anne and Shingle houses are found with Colonial details in the same areas of the country

Materials- brick stone and wood

new material concrete block and stucco

Interiors:

Interior rely on historical precedents

do not copy the originals except in museum restorations

early restorations are more romantic than authentic (based upon imagination and extant interiors)

interior decoration and treatments come from popular notions of Colonial lifestyles

larger and more formal

Furniture:

resemblance to previous styles varies from reproductions to adaptations to free interpretations of  17th century (Queen Anne, Chippendale, Federal, and American Empire styles)

certain icons or signals (grandfather clocks)]

Materials- mahogany, walnut, oak, cherry, and maple

Classical Eclecticism

31 Jul

Classical Eclecticism:

Relying on forms and motifs from classical antiquity renaissance, baroque, architectural compositions declare a classical or cosmopolitan European heritage

civic or national pride or personal culture and prosperity

richly decorated often authentic period rooms

emphasis upon professionalism, interior decoration becomes known as a profession

Concepts:

rejecting high victorian picturesque irregularity, polychrome, and loose borrowings from and revivals of the past

seeks to restore order, unity, and restraint to architecture and interiors

stylistic associations remain important

compositions are more archaeologically correct and reveal specific borrowings or form or details form particular prototypes

Motifs:

egg and dart, bead, dentil moldings, cartouches, roundels, and classical motifs such as pilasters lintels and stringcourses

Architecture:

monumental in scale and show an academic spirit  while drawing upon various classical traditions

either a specific prototype

variety of prototypes or particular style

some reveal no specific prototypes in favor of the designer’s or client’s person attitudes

four architectural styles develop – neo-renaissance, beaux-arts, neoclassical revival, Chateauesques

 

Interiors:

Follow two paths- Aesthetic Movement or Classical Eclecticism

Aesthetic or Artistic interiors- appear in more classical buildings, show visual complexity with decoration or pattern on all surfaces, borrowing from past styles and exotic cultures

Classical Eclecticism- simplification, reduces patterns and eliminates clutter

Furniture:

Classical Eclecticism gives rise to period styles that dominate popular furnishings throughout the early 20th century

large in scale, formal, majestic, carved or painted to suit the specific room

Romanesque Revival, Richardsonian Romanesque

31 Jul

Romanesque Revival, Richardsonian Romansque:

corbel tables, round arches distinguish buildings in the Romanesque or Round-arched style (originated in Germany 19th century)

Henry Hobson Richardson developed the Richardsonian Romanesque style in the 1870’s

based on Romanesque structures, massiveness, round arches, and rough-faced stone define the style

Concepts:

Heinrich Hubsch lays the theoretical foundation for Romanesque Revial in his 1828 work

declares  simpler to construct and more economical than Gothic Revival

style is rational like classicism, use German building materials, suiting the German climate

Richardsonian- draws from Spanish and southern French Romanesque, Norman, and Syrian Early Christian sources instead of German Rundogenstil

Motifs:

round arches, corbel tables, hood moldings, battlements,and rose windows – Romanesque

round arches, floral capitals, lozenges, chevrons, terra-cotta panels of floral ornament – Richardsonian

Architecture:

Romanesque and Richardsonian look to the past for inspiration

deriving from several styles

masonry walls, symmetry, columns, round arches, towers

Richardsonian defines more buildings than Romanesque does

including offices warehouses train stations

impenetrable and fortresslike character makes richardsonian suitable choice for statehouses, courthouses, and prisons

Marterials- brick in various colors, details and ornament may be different colored brick than walls or stone, terra-cotta, or ceramic tile

Interiors:

Medieval appearance using architectural elements

round arches

hooded fireplaces

Floors- stone polished marble encaustic tiles in colorful patterns or wood

Furniture:

have medieval style furniture

no exactly corresponding furniture style

Richardsonian- heavy, rugged appearance like exteriors

Stick, Queen Anne

31 Jul

Stick, Queen Anne:

Stick- combines character of medieval half-timbered buildings with the new balloon framing construction method

use of wooden planks or sticks that form decorative surface patterns or exteriors

Queen Anne- originates in England

create and image of home, tradition, and middle-class comfort

mixes elements from 16-18 centuries

Concepts:

Stick- creating half-timber appearance rendered in wood on American buildings

concepts of picturesque, historicism, and Gothic Revival theory

English Queen Anne- introduced in 1860’s

strives not to revive past style or create new historical style like Greek or Gothic Revival

American Queen Anne- american critics find the English Queen Anne appealing and ensures the style’s immediate adoption

variation is Victorian Vernacular (Queen Anne, Stick, and other styles)

Motifs:

sunflowers, pediments, columns, spindles, scrollwork, quoins, Flemish gables, swags

Architecture:

Architectural styles of Stick, English Queen Anne, and AMerican Queen Anne look to the middle ages, english renaissance and vernacular buildings for inspiration

all styles  adopt asymmetry, irregularity, verticality, forms, and  details, of earlier, buildings

Materials- wood is primary  building material for all building types

may mix brick, stone, masonry with wood

Interiors:

Stick- no corresponding interior style, but some rooms may reflect general exterior character through paneling with stick-like patterns

fashionable revivals such as Rococo, Renaissance, Medieval, Gothic

Queen Anne- do not replicate 18th century

follow revival styles

classical columns, pediments, low relief pasterwork in classical motifs and wall paneling

Furniture:

furniture has no corresponding style to architecture (eclecticism rules)

new and old furnishings in various styles characterizes most rooms

combining Japanese prints, English porcelain, oriental or Middle eastern folding screens, art furniture, cottage furniture and Sheraton, chippendale, Jacobean pieces, and/or over stuffed upholstery

Materials- mahogany and fruitwoods in dark finish (Queen Anne), oak or walnut (American), oak is cheaper

Exoticism

31 Jul

Exoticism:

Inspired by revivalism, eclecticism, and a quest for novelty in 2nd half of the 19th century

looks to non-western cultures

borrowing forms, colors, and motifs

Concepts:

fascination with non-western cultures gives rise to egyptian revival, turkish or islamic styles an indian or mogul style

associated with particular building types, rooms, and furniture, and conveys particular image (timelessness, monumentality)

Motifs:

real or fake hieroglyphs, scarabs, egyptian figures or heads gods and goddesses, lotus, papyrus, crocodiles, cobra, sphinxes, sundisk

Architecture:

examples of Exoticism in architecture are few

especially rare in residences

exotic styles apply to few particular public building types

buildings should convey a purpose

Materials- stone brick wood (america), brick may be stuccoed to render the smooth walls desirable

columns and domes (cast iron, terracotta, ceramic tiles)

Interiors:

combine architectural details, motifs, furniture, or decorative arts of several cultures or styles

enhances their appeal

exotic interiors reflect current fashion trends combined with exotic elements, motifs, colors, furniture

Furniture:

same style furniture in the rooms (ex. Egyptian revival furniture in Egyptian Revival rooms)

exceptions are Turkish-style upholstery (which mixes with  other styles and wicker, used on porches, conservatories, and other rooms)

Western overstuffed upholstery has no prototype in the Middle East

Materials- darks woods, mahogany, rosewood

Second Empire, Rococo Revival

27 Jul

Second Empire, Rococo Revival:

developed in France second empire is an international architectural style (mansard roof, pavilions, bold details)

in Europe and America the style is elegant, sophisticated,  cosmopolitanism

Rococo Revival- based on French Rococo (18 century)

curving forms and feminine grace make it suitable for parlors, drawing rooms, boudoirs

Concepts:

Second Empire- expression of sophistication, cosmopolitanism, and french culture

England and America coincides with build boom and economic prosperity making the style symbolize affluence, elegance, sophisticated taste, authority, and power

Rococo Revival- depicts French look with noble tastes making it popular for home decoration in Western countries

portrays feminine character advanced with elegance

Motifs:

S.E.- columns, swags, cartouches, pediments, relief sculpture

R.R- female mask, vines, shells, roses, flowers, leaves, acorns, nuts

Architecture:

Second Empire- reflecting contemporary architectural developments in France

transform the city into a modern, elegant metropolis

clude wall and/or roof dormers, hood moldings, round arches, stringcourses, column, high-relief sculpture, and classical details

Materials- stone, granite, marble, brownstone, brick, and iron details

Interiors:

Second Empire- created for Napoleon III in Louvre and Tuileries

keep the majestic second empire image

display bold classical architectural details

Rococo Revival- style rooms appear in Greek Revival, Renaissance Revival, Italianate, and Second EMpire buildings

combine French Baroque and French ROcoco

bolder, more symmetrical, and more sculptural

Furniture:

Rococo Revival- curving silhouette, C and S scrolls cabriole legs, naturalistic ornament, larger and heavier with symmetrical, carved decoration

parts have elements that flow together with little interruption and no articulation

flamboyant curving and carved silhouettes

Materials- dark woods, costly woods are rosewood and mahogany, other pieces are walnut or maple, veneers are often used